How to write an ltsp 5 plugin
To build the client environment on a ltsp server, a script called ltsp-build-client is used. It creates the client chroot in /opt/ltsp/$ARCH, bootstraps a base system, installs all ltsp-client related packages and sets the necessary defaults.
All steps the ltsp-build-client script goes through are held in a directory driven plugin system that looks like:
Plugins in the distro specific directory override plugins in the common directory. Optionally, the admin can install or override common or distro plugins in /etc/ltsp/plugins/ltsp-build-client.
NOTE: Plugins are "sourced" not "executed", so be careful to avoid such things as "exit" in your plugin scripts
So if you want to have a special netboot environment that does very specific things, you can do all your modifications through a plugin you put into /etc/ltsp/plugins/ltsp-build-client.
For the fun of it, we'll write a plugin that adds the --kiosk option to ltsp-build-client and creates an ltsp environment which will make all clients booting from it a web kiosk.
There are several modes in which these plugins are called:
- Builds the list of commandline arguments supported by the loaded plugins
- Sets variables for commandline options that are set
- Before the initial chroot is built
- Where the initial chroot is built (debootstrap, on debian systems)
- Additional package installation(ltsp-client), tweaks, etc.
- The last steps needed, such as installing kernels, copying the kernels and network bootable images into the tftp dir, installing the server's ssh keys into the chroot, etc.
- $ARCH - the servers architecture
- $BASE - the basic directory used for ltsp chroots (defaults to /opt/ltsp)
- $CHROOT - the name of the chroot we create in the $BASE dir (by default substituted with $ARCH)
- $ROOT - will always point to the client dir (/opt/ltsp/$CHROOT), use it where appropriate
For operations in the client environment where no locales are set you should always prefix your commands and scripts with LC_ALL=C, that avoids the annoying locale warnings from packages/commands.
To execute a command in the client environment use the following syntax:
LC_ALL=C chroot $ROOT <command>
This way you can do all operations you are used to from a normal ubuntu commandline system.
Fortunately the /usr/share/doc/ltsp-server/workstation doc of the ltsp-server package already has a basic design description of a kiosk mode, we'll use that one and add firefox and a custom ~/.xsession to it.
The code we will put into /etc/ltsp/plugins/ltsp-build-client/30-kiosk
case "$MODE" in commandline) # add a commandline switch to ltsp-build-client (advanced "false" means # we dont expect any value, callig --kiosk is enough, we could enhance # the plugin to use --kiosk kde for example to install kdm and konqueror # instead if we'd set it to true add_option "kiosk" "`eval_gettext "a simple webkiosk mode."`" "advanced" "false" ;; configure) if [ -n "$option_kiosk_value" ]; then # set an environment variable we can pick up later KIOSK="True" fi ;; after-install) if [ -n "$KIOSK" ]; then # install the webbrowser and a display manager that # is capable to do a timed autologin in the client environment LC_ALL=C chroot $ROOT apt-get $APT_GET_OPTS install gdm firefox # make the necessary directories writeable to the booted client echo 'copy_dirs="$copy_dirs /home"' >> $ROOT/etc/defaults/ltsp-client-setup echo 'rw_dirs="$rw_dirs /var/lib/gdm"' >> $ROOT/etc/defaults/ltsp-client-setup # create a kiosk user LC_ALL=C chroot $ROOT adduser --disabled-password --gecos ,,, kiosk # create a default xsession for that user echo "#!/bin/sh" > $ROOT/home/kiosk/.xsession echo "/usr/bin/firefox --fullscreen" >> $ROOT/home/kiosk/.xsession # create a custom configuration for gdm cp $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm.conf $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf # do some sed magic to enable autologin sed -i s/AutomaticLoginEnable=false/AutomaticLoginEnable=true/ $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf sed -i s/AutomaticLogin=/AutomaticLogin=kiosk/ $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf sed -i s/TimedLoginEnable=false/TimedLoginEnable=true/ $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf sed -i s/TimedLogin=/TimedLogin=kiosk/ $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf sed -i s/TimedLoginDelay=30/TimedLoginDelay=10/ $ROOT/etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf # set the new alternative we created as default config LC_ALL=C chroot $ROOT update-alternatives --install /etc/gdm/gdm-cdd.conf gdm-config-derivative /etc/gdm/gdm-kiosk.conf fi ;; esac
Now running sudo ltsp-build-client --kiosk will create a kiosk environment for you. Additionally this plugin can be extended to install kdm and konqueror. An advanced task would be to tweak the $ROOT variable automatically from the configuration phase to be /opt/ltsp/kiosk.
Note that you need ip forwarding enabled on the server so the clients have an internet connection if you run gdm and firefox locally, also a nameserver should be supplied through your dhcpd.conf setup in /etc/ltsp.